manufacturers’ labels & marks (T to Z)

manufacturers’ labels & marks (T to Z)

Vivid color contrast is the beauty of exquisite Edo cut glass Edo Kiriko is a glass craft that has been handed down in Tokyo. In Edo present-day Tokyo in , Kyubei Kagaya started exploring the technique of cutting patterns into the surface of glass. Edo Kiriko was fosterd in the urban culture among the townspeople, and during the Meiji era mid th century , the craft introduced not only Western equipment and instruments, but also their technique while preserving traditional techniques and has been passed down to the present time. First of all, an expert glassblower blows clear glass into a paper-thin shape of colored glass and then rotates this in the air to make the overall form. The result is a two-layer structure with colored glass on the outside and clear glass on the inside. By cutting patterns into the outside surface with different kinds of whetstones, a vivid contrast is created between the colored glass and the transparent glass. To qualify as a Traditional Craft Industry, the Tokyo Metropolitan Government stipulates that the main process of manufacture must require the expert manual skills, the history of the techniques used must date back at least a century, and the craft must use traditional materials.

Orval Brewery

How to date Kosta Boda glass – date codes, series and designer signatures. Dating Kosta Glass Art glass pieces by Kosta are usually signed. However, most production glass is not signed, even if the design comes from a renown designer or artist. There was no uniform way of signing different pieces or series. This difference with Orrefors in the way items are signed and dated can be explained by the different approaches and types of partnerships that the two glassworks had with their artists.

Whereas Orrefors usually had a long relationship with their artists and designers, Kosta frequently invited artists to work with them only for a short time.

Glass City Singles. Testimonials are one of the best ways to identify the company’s reputation. Internet dating is rapidly growing in popularity because it is convenient and success rates are encouraging.

History[ edit ] The word hauberk is derived from the Old Frankish word halsberg, [1] which originally described a small piece of mail that protects “bergen”, literally “to give protection, to save, to rescue” the throat and the neck the “Hals”. The Roman author Varro attributes the invention of mail to the Celts. Roman armies adopted similar technology after encountering it.

Mail armour spread throughout the Mediterranean Basin with the expansion of the Romans. It was quickly adopted by virtually every iron-using culture in the world, with the exception of the Chinese. The Chinese used it rarely, despite being heavily exposed to it from other cultures. The widespread opinion that the short-hemmed, short-sleeved hauberk may have originated from the medieval Islamic world [2] is challenged by the fact that mail shirts of nearly the same design as Medieval ones were already known to the Romans.

The hauberk stored in the Prague Cathedral, dating from the 12th century, is one of the earliest surviving examples from Central Europe and was supposedly owned by Saint Wenceslaus. In Europe, use of mail hauberks continued up through the 14th century, when plate armor began to supplant it. In parts of Central Asia, it continued to be used longer.

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Base codes on Owens-Illinois amber glass handled jug, or date code, made at factory B was jug style number. See list of 19 currently operating glass container plants in North America, farther down on this page. Most of the pics show the first and most widely recognized mark used beginning in As pictured, it can vary slightly from one container to another. Latest confirmed date code with this older trademark known on a bottle is

Photographers – Great Britain & Ireland Information from the world’s largest collection of British and Irish carte de visite photographs and from 30 years of trade directory and census research.

Original by Philip Gibbs October , with thanks to many who contributed their knowledge and references. Is glass liquid or solid? It is sometimes said that glass in very old churches is thicker at the bottom than at the top because glass is a liquid, and so over several centuries it has flowed towards the bottom. This is not true. In Mediaeval times panes of glass were often made by the Crown glass process.

A lump of molten glass was rolled, blown, expanded, flattened and finally spun into a disc before being cut into panes. The sheets were thicker towards the edge of the disc and were usually installed with the heavier side at the bottom. Other techniques of forming glass panes have been used but it is only the relatively recent float glass processes which have produced good quality flat sheets of glass.

To answer the question “Is glass liquid or solid? Thermodynamics of glass There is still much about the molecular physics and thermodynamics of glass that is not well understood, but we can give a general account of what is thought to be the case.

manufacturers’ labels & marks (T to Z)

We all have old family photos. These may be loose or in albums or they may be in the form of postcards or even fragile black and grey glass negatives. So what about dating? Photography started in but at that time was really in the hands of a few scientists, professionals or wealthy amateurs. Not many family photographs exist from that era unless they are beautiful images on a polished silver plate that looks like a mirror.

These are daguerreotypes as invented by Daguerre in France.

Some glass, such as pressed glass, can be identified by the pattern. Since certain patterns were made at different times in the 19th century it can be quite easy to find the exact date of your piece. Of course reproductions are still made so there is a chance the glass is new or vintage (less than years old but more than 60 years old).

Is My Relationship Healthy? Your partner respects you and your individuality. You both feel safe being open and honest. Your partner supports you and your choices even when they disagree with you. Both of you have equal say and respected boundaries. Your partner understands that you need to study or hang out with friends or family. You can communicate your feelings without being afraid of negative consequences.

Is inconsiderate, disrespectful or distrustful. Tries to emotionally or financially control you.

Statistics

Orval Abbey Evidence of brewing goes back to the earliest days of the monastery. A document written by the abbot in directly refers to the consumption of beer and wine by the monks. The last of the brewers to be a monk was Brother Pierre, up until the fire. In the present day brewery was built, employing lay people and intended to provide a source of funds for the monastery reconstruction.

It was designed by Henry Vaes, who also designed the distinctive Orval beer glass. The first beer was shipped from the brewery on 7 May , and was sold in barrels rather than the bottles of today.

Dating old glass bottles the concept is that the higher the side mold seam on the bottle the later it was made how to identify virgin nz contact old bottles at dating old glass bottles least in the era from the early to mid 19th century until the.

Each of the pictured bottles has a relatively short description and explanation including estimated dates or date ranges for that type bottle and links to other view pictures of the bottle. Additional links to images of similar bottles are also frequently included. The array of references used to support the conclusions and estimates found here – including the listed dating ranges – are noted.

Additional information and estimates are based on the empirical observations of the author over 50 years of experience; this is often but not always noted. Various terminology is used in the descriptions that may be unfamiliar if you have not studied other pages on this site. If a term is unfamiliar, first check the Bottle Glossary page for an explanation or definition.

As an alternative, one can do a search of this website. Figured Flasks Figured flasks is a generic name for the large class of liquor flasks primarily produced between and

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